Urinary stone disease (USD) is common and increasingly recognized as a chronic systemic disorder with skeletal and vascular morbidity. The incidence of USD is increasing disproportionately among adolescents, making it critical to understand its impact on bone and vascular health in this population.
There is a need for biomarkers that can identify children with Congenital Anomalies of the Kidneys and Urinary Tract (CAKUT) early in life who are at high risk of future chronic kidney disease progression. Early identification would help guide trials of therapies for those most likely to benefit from early treatment and spare those patients who are at a low risk of progression from potential treatment-associated harms. As most children with structural kidney disease have frequent ultrasounds of their kidneys and bladder, measurements of the healthy kidney tissue and the health of the bladder may predict risk of kidney function decline.